Bearer Agreement

Bearer Agreement: What You Need to Know

A bearer agreement is a type of legal contract where a bond or security is transferred to a person who physically possesses a certificate or other tangible evidence of ownership. This type of agreement is often used in international finance, where the identity of the owner may not be known or may change frequently. Understanding bearer agreements is important for investors and those involved in international finance, as they can impact the value and transferability of securities.

How Bearer Agreements Work

In a bearer agreement, ownership of a bond or security is transferred to whoever possesses the physical certificate. This means that the person who holds the certificate is considered the legal owner of the security, even if their identity is not known. This can make bearer agreements attractive to those who value privacy or wish to avoid reporting requirements.

However, this also means that the transfer of ownership is not recorded by a central authority, which can make it more difficult to track and regulate. Additionally, if the certificate is lost or stolen, the owner may have difficulty proving their ownership of the security.

Bearer agreements can also make it difficult for issuers to communicate with their investors, as they may not have contact information for those who hold their securities. This can complicate matters such as voting on corporate matters or receiving updates on the performance of the security.

Legal Considerations

Bearer agreements can be subject to different legal rules and regulations depending on the country where the security was issued. Some countries have abolished bearer securities altogether, while others require additional documentation and reporting for their use.

In some cases, bearer securities may be subject to higher fees or taxes than registered securities, due to the difficulty in tracking their ownership and transactions.

Bearer agreements may also be subject to money laundering regulations, as they can make it easier to transfer large amounts of funds without detection. This can make them a target for regulatory scrutiny, and investors should be aware of the requirements in their jurisdiction.


Bearer agreements can provide a level of privacy and flexibility that traditional registered securities cannot. However, they also come with additional legal and practical considerations that investors should be aware of. When considering whether to invest in a bearer security, investors should carefully weigh the benefits and risks, and seek legal and financial advice if necessary.